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Such are known as reduced oils. In most petroleum-producing countries, however, and particularly where the product is abundant, the crude oil is fractionally distilled, so as to separate it into naphtha, or petroleum-spirit of various grades, burning oils, gas oil, lubricating oils, and (if the crude oil yields that product) paraffin. The distillates obtained are usually purified by treatment, successively, with sulphuric acid, and solution of caustic soda, followed by washing with water. FIG. 100. AMERICAN HORIZONTAL CYLINDRICAL STILLS. Crude petroleum was experimentally distilled in the United States in 1833 by Professor Silliman, and the refining of petroleum in that country may be said to date from about the year 1855, when Samuel M. Kier, who introduced American Oil as a patent medicine, fitted up a small refinery with a fivebarrel still, for the treatment of the oil obtained from his fathers salt-wells. At this period the supply of the raw material was insufficient to admit of any important development of the industry, and before the drilling of artesian wells for petroleum was initiated by Drake, the coalor shale-oil industry had assumed considerable proportions in the United States.
(Typographical errors above are due to OCR software and don’t occur in the book.)
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|Title||Petroleum, a Treatise on the Geographical Distribution and Geological Occurrence of Petroleum and Natural Gas, the Physical and Chemical Properties, … of the Shale Oil and Allied, Vol. 2|